Ha! I now have a trivial python program the works interactively! momdad.py:


“””
“””

import os

print “os.listdir(os.getcwd())”
print os.listdir(os.getcwd())

for fname in os.listdir(os.getcwd()):
print fname
text=open(fname).read()
print “text.count( hi mom )”
print text.count(‘hi mom’)

Link

A philosophic reason to sets pointers to NULL after free’ing them.


A philosophic reason to sets pointers to NULL after free’ing them.

On reflection, I think I got this one right, and I kinda like it! I have experienced other people’s double-free errors, surprisingly, but the value of crashing-on-access-via-null is persuasive to me. Making double-free happen silently and without error is a small cost for positively crashing on a rogue access through a freed pointer.

Hawker Hurricane Mk I, 4/27/1939-6/5/1940 dH 2-position prop, “B” pattern camo, starboard profile, 1/2 white underside, v.10


Mid-production Hawker Hurricane, Mk I, with Rotol constant-speed prop and a Spitfire spinner (the dedicated Hurricane spinner arrived in late 1940). This is what one would look like if it was painted all together, and they stopped before applying the national and service markings. Just “B” pattern camouflage on top, Dark Green and Dark Earth. Starboard side white, port side black, underneath, meeting at the centerline. Nothing of the original “Aluminum” finish remains outside, but the wheel wells and inside of the undercarriage doors might well be “Aluminum”, still.
The “A” and “B” camouflage patterns were mirror images, so this starboard, “B” scheme, is the same as a port-side “A” scheme, except reversed left to right
The black/white underside recognition features was ordered in August 1938. While the requirement for black under the port wing was made known fairly readily, how to treat the starboard wing, horizontal stabilizers and fuselage underside was somewhat to very unclear between 8/38 and 4/39. The intent was to have the port side black up to the center of the fuselage, and the starboard side white, up to the center of the fuselage, as this drawing and its companion show.

Hawker Hurricane, 1939, dH 2 position prop, “B” scheme camo, port profile. Black and White meet halfway under the wing. v.11


Another mid-period Hurricane. Between Munich (August, 1938) and the invasion of Poland (September, 1939), the, still, “peacetime” RAF expanded dramatically and was flooded with new technology. While everyone more or less understood the written instructions to paint the underside of the port wing black, for recognition when airborne, what to do with the rest of the plane was not always grasped. Black and white across the undersurface of the wing, meeting at the center line, was a durable interpretation, frequently seen, with the rest left as built, in Aluminum finish. Here’s what that would look like with no national or service markings.

Note, the “B” scheme camouflage is the mirror image of the “A”, same blobs of color, but on the other side. So that a row of airplanes would not stand-out by looking identical.

Hawker Hurricane, 1939, port profile, “A” pattern camo, de Havilland 2 position prop, Blk Wht Alu under v.12


A mid-production Hurricane Mk I. “A” pattern camouflage. Underside finished in Aluminum but outer wing panels are black on port side and white on starboard. De Havilland 2 position prop (their build of the Ham.-Std patent), ejector exhausts, anti-spin strake and rudder extension. Port profile.

de Havilland’s metal prop and related hydraulics weighed 350lb more than the Watts wooden prop, but offered a fine (for acceleration from low speed) and coarse (for high speed) settings. With a takeoff speed under 100mph and a maximum speed above 300mph, the Hurricane with a fixed pitch prop was like an automobile with one gear from 20mph to 60. Unresponsive and twitchy at low speed, screaming like a banshee, unnecessarily, at top speed.

The camouflage pattern looked quite different from port side than from starboard, intended to disrupt the outlines of multiple planes parked on the ground.  The “B” scheme was the mirror image of the “A” scheme, so that a line of planes parked in a single direction wouldn’t all look exactly the same.

At the beginning of the war, the “Dark Green” area was always painted Dark Green and the “Dark Earth” always painted Dark Earth, but in the later part of the war, colors were sometimes seen reversed, particularly if re-applied or revised in the field.

Hawker Hurricane Mk I, digital image, by me, “A” pattern camo, Watts prop, no strake, tube mast, Aluminum finish under


Hawker Hurricane Mk I, early production, one of the first 50 built, in 1938, before the anti-spin strake and rudder extension were added. It should have the “kidney” style exhausts, and I’ll change it. This shows the complete external finish, with no national or service markings, yet.  Much like a painted model airplane, before the decals…

Hawker Hurricane Camouflage and exterior / interior colors.


I’ve just completed a series of color profiles of Hurricanes and I’m going to explain them here, with links to click on to show the images. I can’t seem to imbed them in this page without making a literal copy, which seems like a bad idea. So here’s literal copy to show what kind of image we’re talking about, and then descriptions and links:

Hurri Mk I, A patt

Hawker Hurricane, 1939; port profile,”A” pattern camouflage; 2 speed de Havilland prop; black, white, aluminum under v.12

Here’s the first plane, chronologically by subject:

Hurricane Mk I, Early 1938 build, “A” pattern camouflage, Watts fixed pitch prop

There are four parallel histories here, one, of the exterior colors and camouflage the RAF used on all their airplanes, from 1937 to 1946. Second, the evolution of Hurricanes as a new-build manufactured item from Hawkers, Gloster, etc., in the UK, and Canadian Car and Foundry in Canada. Third, the evolution of Hurricanes in service, as operated, maintained, and repaired. Fourth, the colors and markings specific to Hurricanes.

All this first set use the same “Camouflage” colors, the Temperate Land scheme. (Capitalized? Scheme? I’ll look at my references, there is no end to this stuff.) Other RAF standards,  when Hurricane production began were, Tropical Land Scheme, Temperate Sea Scheme, and Tropical Sea Scheme. All of these camouflage schemes applied only to the upper surface of the airplane. The underside finish was the previous, non-camouflage, standard, Aluminum, dope, lacquer or enamel.

Temperate Land colors are Dark Earth, a golden brown, much like a freshly plowed field in UK, and Dark Green, a nice, mature foliage color. On my first visit to the UK, looking out of the airplane window, I saw these same colors spread out in the countryside, and I realize this is precisely what this camouflage was intended to blend in to.

Here are relevant examples:

Captured Hawker Hurricane

Color photo of captured RAF Hawker Hurricane undergoing testing in German hands. Note Luftwaffe markings, worn appearance of finish.

Canadian Hurricane

Contemporary color photo of Canadian Hurricane in flight

Preserved Hurricane

British Science Museum’s Mk 1 Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. Hawker Siddley overhauled the Hurricane in 1963, the finish may not be original.

Tropical Land scheme
Contemporary WWII photo of Hurricane production, in Tropical Land scheme